This brief aims to provide a policy framework to support state and local health advocates, and policymakers, who are looking for ways to address medical debt and aggressive billing and collection practices. It also includes key advocacy considerations to ensure a winning campaign to put in place protections that will help curb medical debt. It is intended as a grounding document to complement a series of case studies describing successful campaign strategies to pass medical debt protections that have recently been put in place in a number of states.